Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;60(1):45-9. Epub 2004 Feb 07.
Laxative treatment elevates plasma homocysteine: a study on a population-based Swedish sample of old people.
Nilsson SE, Takkinen S, Johansson B, Dotevall G, Melander A, Berg S, McClearn G.
Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jonkoping University, Sweden.
OBJECTIVES. Elevated plasma homocysteine might indicate an increased risk of cancer, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The homocysteine level depends on the supply of folate and cobalamine, and constipation and/or laxative treatment might compromise this supply. The present study examined the impact of constipation and laxative treatment on the blood levels of homocysteine, folate and cobalamine in a population-based sample of aged people, including consideration of frailty and impaired renal function, both of which may also influence the homocysteine level. METHODS. The study was based on biochemical tests in 341 females and 183 males aged 82 years or older. The concentrations of homocysteine (plasma), folate, cobalamine and urea (serum) were measured in subjects with and without ongoing treatment with laxative drugs. Values were adjusted for age, gender and frailty, as well as for clinical diagnoses and drug therapies known to affect homocysteine levels. RESULTS. Homocysteine levels were increased and those of folate reduced in aged subjects on laxatives. Homocysteine remained elevated after adjusting for frailty and various neurological disorders. There was no significant effect on homocysteine and folate in constipated subjects without laxatives.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14767628&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative [PubMed - in process]
Arch Toxicol. 2004 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]
A 13-week oral toxicity study of senna in the rat with an 8-week recovery period.
Mengs U, Mitchell J, McPherson S, Gregson R, Tigner J.
Madaus AG, 51101, Cologne, Germany.
Senna was administered by gavage to Sprague Dawley rats once daily at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 750 or 1500 mg/kg for up to 13 consecutive weeks followed by an 8-week recovery period for selected animals. Dose- and treatment-related clinical signs included abnormal feces, which were seen to varying degrees from animals at 300 mg/kg per day and more. Animals receiving 750 or 1500 mg/kg per day had significantly reduced body weight gain (males only) and, related to the laxative properties of senna, increased water consumption and notable changes in electrolytes in both serum and urine. At both the terminal and recovery phase necropsy, an increase in absolute and relative kidney weights was seen for male and female animals receiving 750 and/or 1500 mg/kg per day. A dark discoloration of the kidneys was observed at necropsy along with histopathological changes in the kidneys (slight to moderate tubular basophilia and pigment deposits) at 300 mg/kg and above. However, there were no indications in laboratory parameters of any renal dysfunction. In addition, for all treated groups, minimal to slight hyperplasia was recorded in the forestomach and large intestine. Following 8 weeks of recovery, with the exception of the brown pigment in the kidneys, there were no histopathological abnormalities. Thus, the biochemical and morphological changes seen following 13 weeks of treatment of senna significantly reversed following 8 weeks of recovery.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14997282&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Physiol Behav. 1989 Aug;46(2):223-7.
Eating attitudes and taste responses in young ballerinas.
Martin C, Bellisle F.
Universite Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV--Cursus d'Etudes Superieures en Danse, France.
The Eating Attitude Test 40 (EAT 40) was administered to 23 ballerinas (mean age 18.3 +/- 0.9 years). The scores were high, as they are in anorexic patients. The EAT 40 revealed anorexic-like attitudes in dancers: selective food restrictions, severe dieting, constant preoccupations with food. However, dancers scored low at items screening bulimia, vomiting or laxative abuse. The dancers' perceptions and preferences for sweetness and fat food content were examined and compared to those of 14 sedentary controls. Taste stimuli were 20 semiliquid mixtures of soft-white cheese (0, 3 or 7 grams of fat per 100 grams) or heavy cream (30% fat), and sweetened with 1, 5, 10, 20 or 40% sucrose. The subjects used a 9-point category scale to rate the perceived sweetness, fat content, and hedonic value of the stimuli. There were no significant differences in the perceived sweetness intensity between groups, but the perception of fat appeared to be better in dancers, in particular in very sweet stimuli. Dancers showed a clear aversion for the fattest stimuli. In young female dancers, enhanced sensitivity for alimentary fats is associated with decreased preferred levels.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=2602463&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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