Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Jan 8 [Epub ahead of print]
Abnormal Paneth cell granule dissolution and compromised resistance to bacterial colonization in the intestine of CF mice.
Clarke LL, Gawenis LR, Bradford EM, Judd LM, Boyle KT, Simpson JE, Shull GE, Tanabe H, Ouellette AJ, Franklin CL, Walker NM.
Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
Paneth cells of intestinal crypts contribute to host defense by producing antimicrobial peptides that are packaged as granules for secretion into the crypt lumen. Here, we provide evidence using light and electron microscopy that post-secretory Paneth cell granules undergo limited dissolution and accumulate within the intestinal crypts of cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. Based on this finding, we evaluated bacterial colonization and expression of two major constituents of Paneth cells, i.e., alpha defensins (cryptdins) and lysozyme, in CF murine intestine. Paneth cell granules accumulated in intestinal crypt lumens in both untreated CF mice with impending intestinal obstruction and in CF mice treated with an osmotic laxative that prevented overt clinical symptoms and mucus accretion. Ultrastructure studies indicated little change in granule morphology within mucus casts, whereas granules in laxative-treated mice appear to undergo limited dissolution. Protein extracts from CF intestine had increased levels of processed cryptdins as compared to those from wild-type (WT) littermates. Nonetheless, colonization with aerobic bacteria species was not diminished in the CF intestine and oral challenge with a cryptdin-sensitive enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, resulted in greater colonization of the CF as compared to WT intestine. Modest down-regulation of cryptdin and lysozyme mRNA in CF intestine was shown by microarray analysis, real-time quantitative PCR and Northern blot analysis. Based upon these findings, we conclude that antimicrobial pep
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1989 Nov 25;133(47):2341-4.
[The effect of admission to a geriatric department of a general hospital on drug consumption of the elderly]
[Article in Dutch]
Haagsma CJ, Gribnau FW, Bruyns E.
Admission to a geriatric department of a general hospital of 100 elderly patients admitted in succession, resulted in a slight decrease in number of the prescribed medication. The data were gathered retrospectively. Cardiovascular drugs accounted for the main decrease, sedatives and laxatives showed the highest increase. The use of diuretics is significantly associated with dehydration; 43% of the users of diuretics were dehydrated. The most striking conclusion was that 25% of the prescriptions could be stopped for lack of indication.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=2586664&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Feb;27(2):162-5.
Effect of ethanol extracts of three chinese medicinal plants with laxative properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia.
Tsai JC, Tsai S, Chang WC.
Department of Physical Education, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, 500 Taiwan.
The effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants Dahuang (Rheum palmatum L.), Badou (Croton tiglium L.), and Huomaren (Cannabis sativa L.), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were studied. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached with voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes of the short-circuit current across the epithelia. The intestinal epithelia were activated with current raised by serosal administration of forskolin 5 microM. Ethanol extracts of the three plants all augmented the current additively when each was added after forskolin. In subsequent experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants to determine their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that ethanol extracts of the three medicinal plants may affect the Cl(-) movement more directly than Na(+) movement in the intestinal epithelial cells. The results provide evidence for the pharmacologic mechanism of the three Chinese medicinal plants on the intestinal tract.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14758025&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative [PubMed - in process]
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