Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):939-42.
Constipation with acquired megarectum in children with autism.
Afzal N, Murch S, Thirrupathy K, Berger L, Fagbemi A, Heuschkel R.
Centre for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free Hospital, Hampstead, London, United Kingdom.
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that autistic children may have significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Although constipation occurs in 2% to 5% of healthy children, its clinical diagnosis is often difficult in children with behavioral disorders. We thus aimed to assess the prevalence of fecal loading in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms and to identify possible predictors of constipation. METHODS: We studied abdominal radiographs of 103 autistic children (87 boys) who were referred for gastroenterological assessment, in comparison with 29 control radiographs from children who were referred to the emergency department, most with abdominal pain. Radiographs were scored independently, in blinded manner, by 4 pediatric gastroenterologists and a radiologist. The severity of constipation was determined using a validated index. Details of stool habit, abdominal pain, dietary history, and laxative use were obtained from case notes. RESULTS: The incidence of constipation in the control subjects with abdominal pain was higher than reported for normal children. Despite this, moderate or severe constipation was more frequent in the autistic group than in the control subjects (36% vs 10%). Analysis of rectosigmoid loading showed more striking differences (54.4% of autistic children had moderate/severe loading or acquired megarectum compared with 24.1% of control subjects). Multivariate regression analysis showed consumption of milk to be the strongest predictor of constipation in the autistic group, whereas stool frequency, gluten consumption, soiling, and abdominal pain were not predictive of constipation. CONCLUSIONS: Constipation is a frequent finding in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and autism, particularly in
Dis Colon Rectum. 2003 Nov;46(11):1508-12.
Quality-of-life assessment of patients after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for slow-transit constipation with rectal inertia.
Kalbassi MR, Winter DC, Deasy JM.
Department of Surgery, Beaumont Hospital Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
PURPOSE: Severe idiopathic constipation with rectal inertia represents a challenging medical problem that, in extremis, might warrant surgery. We studied a group of patients who have undergone proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for this problem. The purpose was to assess the functional success of this procedure and its impact on the social function of the patients. METHODS: Patients with functional, intractable constipation have one motion or less per week and are laxative-dependent. The indication for surgery was based on failure of long-term medical therapy. The selection criteria were normal colonoscopy, normal anal manometry and pudendal nerve latency test, and abnormal transit study and abnormal video proctography. The functional outcome after surgery was assessed by anal manometry and stool frequency. Quality of life was analyzed using the Rand health survey 1.0 consisting of a comprehensive questionnaire used preoperatively and postoperatively with emphasis on physical function, role limitation because of functional/emotional problems, social function, pain, and general health. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (14 females) underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis over a seven-year period (1993-1999). The mean age was 41 (range, 25-47) years. All had a temporary defunctioning loop ileostomy fashioned, and there were no anastomotic leaks. Two patients required pouch excision within 18 months because of intractable pelvic pain. The mean stool frequency was eight (range, 3-12) per day at the first follow-up. At the second follow-up, this had improved to five (range, 2-6) per day. The mean resting and squeeze anal pressures preoperatively were 82 cm H2O and 104 mmHg, respectively, and were unchanged after surgery. Significa
Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199(11):733-7.
Effects of long-term administration of Senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats.
Nadal SR, Calore EE, Manzione CR, Puga FR, Perez NM.
Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Plants of the genus Senna that contain anthranoides derivatives are frequently used as cathartics. Radiological studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic constipation who have used stimulant laxative have colonic redundancy and dilatation more frequently than patients who have not. The objective of the present work was to study morphological and histochemical changes of the lower gut after administration of Senna occidentalis seeds for a long period to rats, as observed in skeletal muscle fibers. Fragments of the lower gut of young and adult rats treated with S. occidentalis seeds (2% for 171 days and 3% for 61 days in the diet) were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis and to densitometry. The most important finding was decreased oxidative enzyme activity in smooth muscle cells and in myenteric neurons of the large bowel. As oxidative metabolism is essential for ATP and energy production, these results suggest that the functional intestinal disturbance caused by the chronic use of Senna occidentalis as a laxative can be due to a metabolic effect involving energy production, which would decrease colonic motility and cause functional colonic dilatation, but without any irreversible anatomic change.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14708639&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative [PubMed - in process]
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