J Chromatogr. 1978 Jul 1;146(1):91-102.
Paraffin oil pneumonia. Analysis of saturated hydrocarbons in different human tissue.
Heckers H, Melcher FW, Dittmar K, Kalinowski HO.
Temperature-programmed gas chromatographic analysis on columns packed with Apiezon L as stationary phase is shown to be the best method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of simple and complex hydrocarbon mixtures when compared with all the other applicable techniques (thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry) described in this paper. Using the method in a patient with mineral oil pneumonia it could be demonstrated that he expectorated a maximum of 79.5 mg liquid paraffin daily and also transported equally complex saturated hydrocarbons in a concentration of 1.3 mg% in plasma and of 1.6 mg% in the cellular blood components. In an additional experiment the direct determination of liquid paraffin resorbed from the gastrointestinal tract was possible in a patient with a left chyle fistula in the neck. After a dose of 50 g liquid paraffin administered as a laxative, 246 ml chyle was collected within the following 14 h which yielded a total of 4.5 mg liquid paraffin. Its composition was identical with the administered laxative. Assuming a daily lymph volume of 1.51, the resorbed amount would correspond to a resorption rate of 0.5 (see article) liquid paraffin. The importance of these results as well as the diagnostic consequences arising from the described analytical technique are discussed in detail.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=670362&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Am J Dig Dis. 1978 Jun;23(6):513-20.
A unique distribution of laxative-induced spike potentials from the small intestine of the dog.
Atchison WD, Stewart JJ, Bass P.
The effects of castor oil and ricinoleic acid on small bowel electrical activity were studied in the fasted conscious dog and were compared to the effects elicited by two nonlaxative oils (triolein and oleic acid). Spike potential activity was monitored at two jejunal sites using unipolar recording electrodes. Castor oil, ricinoleic acid, and triolein produced an increased incidence of basic electrical rhythm (BER) with associated spike potentials when compared to a fasted control; however, the total electrical spiking activity produced by these oils was not statistically different from that induced by feeding. No treatment altered any of the characteristics of BER. A novel pattern of electrical spiking activity was observed in response to the laxatives. This pattern consisted of short repetitive bursts of spike potentials which migrated the length of the recording site. The laxative-induced electrical pattern persisted for several days after treatment with ricinoleic acid or castor oil, and interdigestive patterns were occasionally interrupted for as long as 72 hr. Electrical activity following feeding or the nonlaxative oils consisted of random spike potentials, and normal interdigestive electrical activity resumed within 24 hr. The laxative-induced electrical pattern was shown to be quantitatively distinct from those produced by feeding, fasting, or nonlaxative oils. This pattern may reflect an action of these laxatives on intestinal motility during a diarrheal state.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=677106&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Klin Wochenschr. 1978;56 Suppl 1:91-6.
Chronic hypokalemic nephropathy: a clinical study.
Bock KD, Cremer W, Werner U.
Description of 23 patients (21 women, 2 men) with an average age of 36.6 (19--68) years, who were hypokalemic during 6.5 years on the average (range 1/2--16 years). The cause of the potassium depletion was malnutrition (anorexia nervosa, vomiting) and/or abuse of laxatives and/or diuretics. With increasing duration of potassium depletion renal function deteriorated; in two cases terminal renal failure developed. Histology of the kidneys (9 cases) showed the picture of chronic abacterial interstitial nephritis. Urinalysis was negative or non-specific. The blood pressure levels were normal or low, hypertensive values being exceptional. Aside of hypokalemia a tendency to hyponatriemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alcalosis was observed, the latter turning into hypokalemic normochloremic acidosis with advancing renal insufficiency. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration or excretion frequently were elevated, but no close correlation was found between these parameters or with the blood pressure. Bacterial infection of the urinary tract occured, if at all, in the late phase and seems to be complication rather than the cause of the kidney disease. The discussion of other possible pathogenetic factors leads to the conclusion that the term "chronic kaliopenic nephropathy" is justified. Some diagnostic and therapeutic consequences are mentioned.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=732256&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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