Helv Chir Acta. 1992 Mar;58(5):725-8.
[Mechanical preparation of the colon with sodium picosulfate]
[Article in French]
Cornu P, Mosimann F.
Service de chirurgie, Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois, Lausanne.
We tested the laxative sodium picosulfate for mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery. The quality of this preparation was assessed on a visual analog scale on 277 patients who were then followed prospectively for wound and intraabdominal infectious complications for 42 days. Picosulfate preparation resulted in a complication rate similar to whole gut irrigation but was more acceptable for the patients and the nurses.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1592645&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1992 Jan;18(1):48-58.
Subchronic (13-week) toxicity studies of oral phenolphthalein in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.
Dietz DD, Elwell MR, Chapin RE, Shelby MD, Thompson MB, Filler R, Stedham MA.
Division of Toxicology Research and Testing, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.
Phenolphthalein is a cathartic agent that is widely used in over-the-counter laxatives. Thirteen-week toxicity studies of phenolphthalein were performed using F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats and mice were fed ad libitum with a NIH 07 diet containing 0; 3000; 6000; 12,000; 25,000; or 50,000 ppm phenolphthalein. On a milligram per kilogram body weight basis, rats and mice fed 50,000 ppm phenolphthalein ingested more drug than would be expected during human laxative abuse. Phenolphthalein produced little evidence of toxicity in rats. There was slightly lower weight gain among the 25,000 and 50,000 ppm groups. Treated rats showed elevated relative kidney weights (males only) and elevated absolute and relative liver weights at 12,000-50,000 ppm phenolphthalein. Rat serum bile acids were depressed early (Days 5 and 6) by phenolphthalein treatment. Several treatment-related toxic effects, however, were identified in mice who received more phenolphthalein per unit body weight than rats. Although there were no effects on body weight gain, elevated liver weights were noted in female mice receiving 6000-50,000 ppm phenolphthalein. The primary treatment-related findings that occurred during the mouse studies involved the reproductive and hematopoietic systems. Reproductive changes including depressed testis and right epididymal weights and sperm density, an elevated production of abnormal sperm, and morphologic alterations in seminiferous tubules occurred at all levels of exposure (3000-50,000 ppm). Hematopoietic changes included bone marrow hypoplasia (12,000-50,000 ppm), increased splenic hematopoiesis (males only; 25,000 and 50,000 ppm), and a
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Jul;34(1):40-6.
Effects of a non-absorbable osmotic load on drug absorption in healthy volunteers.
Riley SA, Kim M, Sutcliffe F, Kapas M, Rowland M, Turnberg LA.
Department of Medicine, Hope Hospital, Manchester.
1. We have studied the effects of a non-absorbable osmotic load on the absorption of a multicomponent solution of frusemide, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and salicylic acid in six healthy volunteers. 2. Each subject was studied on up to four separate occasions. The drugs were administered in one of four solutions: a) a mannitol/electrolyte solution, b) a double-strength mannitol/electrolyte solution, c) a glucose/electrolyte solution and d) water. Lactulose or sulphasalazine were added as oro-caecal transit markers. Lactulose was included in the mannitol- and glucose-based solutions, adding a further non-absorbable osmotic load, and sulphasalazine was added to the water, adding little osmotic load. 3. The absorption of atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide was two- to three-times less from all lactulose-containing solutions than from the sulphasalazine-containing solution. The absorption of frusemide and salicylic acid was similar from all four solutions. 4. The largest non-absorbable osmotic load impaired the absorption of atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide most and the incorporation of glucose only partly restored absorption. 5. These results suggest that transmucosal water movement is an important determinant of atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide absorption but is less relevant for the absorption of frusemide and salicylic acid. Furthermore, these data demonstrate a previously unrecognised interaction between a commonly prescribed laxative--lactulose, and atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1633066&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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