Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 May;59(1):1-5.
The role of intestinal bacteria in the transformation of sodium picosulfate.
Kim DH, Hyun SH, Shim SB, Kobashi K.
Department of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
Sodium picosulfate, a laxative, was biotransformed to 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-(2 pyridyl)-methane by intestinal flora that produced a novel sulfotransferase (not sulfatase). The biotransformation was activated by adding phenolic compounds such as phenol, acetaminophen and flavonoids. The enzyme activity related to this biotransformation was the highest in the contents of the caecum region of the intestine. The enzyme activity was 3.0 mumole/hr/g wet feces in humans and 0.75 in rats (pH 8.0). The optimal pH was 9.0.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1507649&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Am J Public Health. 1992 Jan;82(1):47-54.
Adolescent smoking, weight changes, and binge-purge behavior: associations with secondary amenorrhea.
Johnson J, Whitaker AH.
Clinical and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.
BACKGROUND. The association of secondary amenorrhea with extreme forms of substance use, weight control, and exercise in nonrepresentative samples raises questions as to whether adolescents in the general population who engage in these behaviors are at increased risk for secondary amenorrhea. We examined the prevalence and behavioral correlates of secondary amenorrhea in a county-wide high school population of 2544 girls aged 13 to 18. METHODS. A survey questionnaire, which elicited menstrual history as well as weight history, weight control practices, level of exercise, and use of cigarettes, wine, and beer, was administered during school hours; absentees were also surveyed. The completion rate was 91%. RESULTS. The 1-year prevalence of secondary amenorrhea was 8.5%. Secondary amenorrhea was associated with smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day (adjusted relative risk [RRa] = 1.96, 1.21-3.10), with multiple binge-eating behaviors in combination with laxative use or self-induced vomiting (RRa = 4.17, 2.54-6.32), and with weight fluctuation due to weight control (RRa = 2.59, 1.33-4.79). There was no association between amenorrhea and alcohol consumption or exercise level. CONCLUSIONS. Estimates of attributable risk are provided and indicate that bulimic behaviors and cigarette smoking may result in a considerable excess of cases of secondary amenorrhea in an adolescent population.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1536334&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
J Am Diet Assoc. 1992 Mar;92(3):306-12.
Dieting and purging behavior in black and white high school students.
Comprehensive Psychiatric Services, Inc., Cleveland, OH 44122.
This study examines the prevalence and intensity of dieting and purging behavior in a sample of 1,269 male and female, black and white high school students from 10 schools in the greater Cleveland, Ohio, area. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, which 72% of the sample completed. The study compares black and white boys and black and white girls, respectively, and shows a higher prevalence of dieting and purging behavior than has been reported in other research. Forty-one percent of black boys, 42% of white boys, 61% of black girls, and 77% of white girls dieted. The quarter of dieters who dieted least lost less than 8 lb on their most successful diet and stayed on their diet less than 3 weeks whereas the quarter of dieters who dieted most lost more than 16 lb on their most successful diet and stayed on their diet more than 2 months. The majority of dieters exercised 3 to 6 hours a week. One quarter of the dieting boys and one third of the dieting girls fasted for 24 hours at least once per week. A higher percentage of girls than boys used purging to help them lose weight. Significantly more black girls than white girls used laxatives (18% vs 7%) and diuretics (11% vs 7%) whereas significantly more white girls than black girls used vomiting (16% vs 3%). Black and white boys were similar in dieting and purging behavior. Thus, race appears to be an unimportant factor in boys in studies of this kind; the same is not true for black and white girls.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1552129&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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