Gut. 1992 Oct;33(10):1338-42.
Concentrations of 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA in human ileocolonic biopsy homogenates after oral 5-ASA preparations.
De Vos M, Verdievel H, Schoonjans R, Praet M, Bogaert M, Barbier F.
Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Intramucosal 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and acetylated 5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA) concentrations were determined in ileocolonic biopsy specimens from 61 patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated for one week with near equimolar doses of different slow release preparations of 5-ASA (Claversal, Asacol, or Pentasa) or azo-bound drugs (Salazopyrin, Dipentum). The transit time in these patients was accelerated by a laxative, metoclopramide, and colonic lavage. The presence of 5-ASA in the mucosa was confirmed by autofluorescence. The highest concentrations of 5-ASA were obtained after Asacol (mean (SEM), 298.5 (37.3) ng/mg wet wt), followed by Claversal 500 mg (108.8 (11.7) ng/mg wet wt) and Pentasa (25.7 (2.2) ng/mg wet wt). Very low concentrations only were observed after Claversal 250 mg (0.3 (0.03) ng/mg wet wt), Salazopyrine (1.2 (0.1) ng/mg wet wt), and Dipentum (11.0 (3.2) ng/mg wet wt). The results for Ac-5-ASA were similar but the concentrations were generally lower. Serum concentration-time curves over eight hours were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers after a single oral dose of 400 to 500 mg of the different drugs. For the slow release forms, an apparently inverse relationship was found between the area under the curve of the serum concentrations and the intramucosal concentrations, supporting the importance of the local availability of the drug. This inverse relationship was absent for the azo-bound drugs. Colonic washout induced mechanical removal of intraluminal 5-ASA with a secondary disturbance in absorption resulting in a rapid decline in the serum concentrations. However, only for Dipentum did this result in significantly lower 5-ASA mucosal concentrations. This is the first reported attempt to ev
J Gerontol Nurs. 1992 Oct;18(10):5-12.
Constipation: proposed natural laxative mixtures.
Beverley L, Travis I.
The treatment of constipation in the elderly is one of the most common problems encountered by the geriatric nurse practitioner (Aman, 1990; Brocklehurst, 1983; Shefts, 1984). Management of bowel habits with this age group is difficult, often resulting in mismanagement and the need for invasive measures, such as suppositories and enemas. Yet, it is possible bowel habits for these patients might be regulated by maintaining their dietary, dentition, and mobility requirements so that the use of invasive measures as well as associated product costs are minimized. A review of the literature revealed normal defecation ranges in frequency from three times a day to three times a week (Connel, 1965). As reported by Wright and Staats (1986), however, the "interval between bowel movements generally lengthens in debilitated older people."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1479159&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Pediatr Ann. 1992 Nov;21(11):752-9.
An epidemiological study of anorectic and bulimic symptoms in adolescent girls: implications for pediatricians.
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.
Our findings suggest that most cases of anorexia nervosa among high school girls are eventually recognized and treated. However, it is worrisome that a large number of girls suffering from early anorexia nervosa and an even greater number suffering from bulimia do not seek treatment for their disorder. In addition, it is clear that girls who do not meet criteria for the full syndromes may nonetheless be engaging in the cardinal behaviors associated with these disorders. Therefore, the pediatrician must actively inquire about weight control practices and binge-purge behavior during the course of routine examinations. These behaviors are sufficiently common that such inquiry should be incorporated into the routine evaluation of every girl, even when there is no obvious reason to be concerned. The vast majority of girls will express dissatisfaction with their weight and report that they have attempted to control their weight in some manner, most often with dieting, in the past year. Normative data from a cross-sectional study such as the one described provide some guidelines as to when such behavior is likely to be associated with other types of problems, such as depressive symptoms or amenorrhea. For example, our data suggest that weight loss of 10 lbs or more in the past year and fasting are more likely to be associated with depressive symptoms and menstrual irregularity than less severe forms of caloric restriction. Our findings also suggest that purging behavior (self-induced vomiting and laxative use), particularly in combination with binge eating, is associated with very high rates of both depressive symptoms and menstrual irregularity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1484750&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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