Pharmacol Res. 1992 Dec;26(4):385-94.
Effect of L(+)-tartrate on some biochemical and enzymatic parameters in normal and glycollate treated rats.
Selvam GS, Subha K, Varalakshmi P.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr A.L. Mudaliar Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Taramani, University of Madras, India.
Some biochemical and enzymatic constituents were determined in the small intestinal tract tissues of normal and sodium glycollate treated adult male rats. Alterations were observed with respect to certain lipids and carbohydrate fractions in the glycollate fed rats. DNA content was also elevated in this group. The functions of the cell membrane is likely to be affected as reflected in the levels of transport ATPases and orthophospho-hydrolases. The activities of the two marker enzymes in the intestinal brush border, namely alkaline phosphatase and leucylnaphthylamidase were reduced in the glycollate administered group. Administration of L(+)-tartrate, which is a mild laxative and has a regulatory influence on oxalate metabolism, lowered the activities of Na+, K(+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPases. There was a distinct lowering in the level of acid phosphatase in the tartrate treated rats.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1338223&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Am J Vet Res. 1992 Aug;53(8):1347-53.
Comparison of the effects of intragastric infusions of equal volumes of water, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, and magnesium sulfate on fecal composition and output in clinically normal horses.
Freeman DE, Ferrante PL, Palmer JE.
Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square 19348-1692.
A Latin square design was used to compare the effects of laxatives and a corresponding volume of water on gastrointestinal tract function in 4 healthy horses. Horses were intragastrically infused with each of the following: dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS; 50 mg/kg of body weight); magnesium sulfate (0.5 g/kg--low dosage); magnesium sulfate (1.0 g/kg--high dosage); and an equal volume of water (6 L) given as a control infusion. From 5 to 33 hours after the high dosage of magnesium sulfate, feces were slightly softer than usual in all horses. In 1 horse, DSS caused mild colic, hyperpnea, and diarrhea from 0.3 to 3 hours after administration. After all laxative treatments and the control infusion, fecal output, fecal water, number of defecations, and fecal water percentage were greater during the first 6 and 12 hours, compared with each subsequent 6-hour period (P less than 0.05). The high dosage of magnesium sulfate had greater effect on fecal output and fecal water than did the low dosage and control infusion (P less than 0.05). However, this effect preceded arrival of the liquid transit marker, polyethylene glycol, and magnesium at their highest concentrations in feces by 12 to 18 hours. Compared with the control infusion, none of the laxative treatments affected excretion of polyethylene glycol and plastic particulate markers, nor did they increase water consumption. It was concluded that the response to intragastric infusions may involve reflex mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract and that these responses could be used for treatment of colon impactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1380786&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative [PubMe
Pharm Acta Helv. 1992;67(7):198-203.
In vitro deterioration of rhein anthraquinone in cecal content of rats.
de Witte P, Cuveele J, Lemli J.
Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, Instituut voor Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, Belgium.
The influence of the intestinal microbial reduction of rhein anthraquinone on the formation of deterioration products was studied. Therefore [14C]rhein and [14C]rhein anthrone were mixed with sterilized or non-sterilized cecal mass of rats and incubated for 20 hours at 37 degrees C. Extractions with a methanol-water (50:50) mixture or 4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (0.1%) in pyridine revealed several radioactive derivatives after TLC and autoradiography, except in the case where the anthraquinone was mixed with sterilized cecal content. Gel permeation on a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer column of an methanol/water extract of non-sterilized cecal content incubated with [14C]rhein, showed radioactive deterioration products with a molecular weight higher than rhein anthraquinone. The high molecular weight of some deterioration products was confirmed by an ultrafiltration study where the methanol/water extract was centrifuged on a Centricon-3 microconcentrator (nominal cutoff: 3000 MW). Aqueous extracts of non-sterilized cecal content incubated with rhein were extracted with chloroform to remove rhein anthraquinone, rhein anthrone and sennidins before being intracecally injected in rats. No laxative activity was found. Furthermore it was shown that the deterioration products which are probably formed through radical reactions, no longer develop a color with a solution of KOH. Therefore it is concluded that the reduction process of dihydroxy-anthraquinones in the gut microflora followed by an extraction, accounts for the loss of anthranoid equivalents in in vivo circumstances, as several times reported in the past.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1409758&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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