J Pharm Pharmacol. 1986 May;38(5):369-73.
Acceleration of large intestine transit time in rats by sennosides and related compounds.
Sennosides A + B and their natural metabolites, sennidins A + B, rheinanthrone and rhein, as well as the synthetic laxative danthron, were investigated for their influence on small and large intestine transit time in rats. Carmine red, as a marker, was administered through a gastric tube for small intestine transit or intracaecally by a chronically implanted catheter for colon transit. High doses of sennosides (250-500 mg kg-1) given orally from 20 min or up to 6 h before marker administration had no effect on small intestine transit time. The metabolites and danthron (10-100 mg kg-1 p.o.) also did not accelerate upper gastrointestinal passage. Intracaecal administration at the same time as carmine red, however, reduced the time for the appearance of the first coloured faeces from more than 8 h in the controls to 46 +/- 9 min after sennosides, 34 +/- 11 min after sennidins, 53 +/- 83 min after rhein and 16 +/- 4 min after rheinanthrone (50 mg kg-1 of each). Danthron was ineffective. Thus, sennosides and their natural metabolites specifically influence large intestinal motility. Acceleration of colonic transport seems to be a major component of the laxative action whereas for danthron motility changes are not responsible for its laxative action. Indomethacin partly inhibited the acceleration of large intestine transit induced by sennosides. An involvement of endogenous prostaglandins may therefore be possible, although a local bolus administration of PGF2 alpha or PGE2 into the caecal lumen neither influenced transit time nor induced diarrhoea.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=2872313&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Gastroenterol Nurs. 1993 Dec;16(3):106-9.
Colon cleanout preparations in children and adolescents.
Barrish JO, Gilger MA.
To determine the effectiveness and associated side effects of a variety of bowel cleansing preparations before colonoscopy, 52 children, ages 4 months to 18 years, were evaluated. Data gathered included type of cleanout preparation used, adequacy of the preparations, and side effects. Twenty-two combinations of laxatives, lavages, enemas, and rectal suppositories were used. Side effects were reported in 90% of patients. In 79% of the patients the colon was clean or clean with some liquid feces, allowing a complete examination of the colon. Formed feces were present in 21% of the subjects, and cleanout preparations were so inadequate in 9% of the subjects that the procedure had to be rescheduled. The most effective preparations were X-Prep liquid+Adult Fleet enema, GoLYTELY, and GoLYTELY+Adult Fleet enema, all of which allowed a complete examination of the colon. Pediatric Fleet ready-to-use enema was the least effective when used alone. X-Prep liquid+Adult Fleet enema caused the highest number of side effects (18%), while Pediatric Fleet ready-to-use enema alone caused the least (4%). The most effective cleanout preparation with the fewest side effects was GoLYTELY, used alone or in combination with enemas. These results suggest that many typical cleanout preparations yield inadequate results, wasting time or money, and argue in favor of the use of more effective preparations with fewer side effects, such as GoLYTELY.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8286425&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Biol Pharm Bull. 1993 Oct;16(10):1040.
Rat selection test with respect to laxative activity induced by barbaloin.
Ishii Y, Tanizawa H, Takino Y.
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Japan.
As individual differences in sensitivity in the laxative activity of barbaloin were observed in rats, a selection test for barbaloin (31.1 mg/kg, p.o.) was carried out between 1989 and 1991. The annual percentages of rats exhibiting a reaction positive to barbaloin were almost constant (about 57%). We propose that rats positive to barbaloin should be selected for studies on the laxative effect of barbaloin.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8287035&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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