Br J Pharmacol. 1994 Dec;113(4):1127-30.
Dissociation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.
Capasso F, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Gaginella TS.
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
1. Castor oil (2 ml orally) produced diarrhoea in rats 1-7 h after challenge, which was associated with gross damage to the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. 2. The injury was accompanied by release of acid phosphatase into the gut lumen, indicating cellular injury. 3. Intraperitoneal injection of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 2.5-50 mg kg-1 twice), prevented the diarrhoea. The dose of L-NAME (50 mg kg-1) completely blocked the diarrhoea but increased the release of acid phosphatase and worsened the gross damage. 4. The NO donating compound, isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IMN, 150 mg kg-1 twice) reversed the effects of L-NAME (50 mg kg-1) on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gross damage and acid phosphatase release. 5. The apparent dissociation of the diarrhoeal and intestinal mucosal damaging effects of castor oil suggest that NO has a protective effect on the rat duodenal and jejunal mucosa, but that NO mediates, in part, the diarrhoea effect of this laxative.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7889264&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
QJM. 1995 Jan;88(1):49-54.
The role of diuretics in the aetiology of idiopathic oedema.
Pelosi AJ, Czapla K, Duncan A, Henderson JB, Dunnigan MG.
Department of Psychiatry, Hairmyres Hospital, Glasgow.
The hypothesis that diuretic use and abuse and other purging behaviours cause idiopathic oedema was investigated in 102 patients. Of 91 symptomatic idiopathic oedema patients tested at referral, 16 (17.6%) had diuretic and four (4.4%) laxative in their urine. None had grossly disturbed serum urea and electrolytes. Examination of primary care records from 41 idiopathic oedema patients who denied current diuretic consumption, and denied or were uncertain about past consumption, showed that 20 had not been prescribed diuretics by their general practitioners at any time; a further 18 had not been prescribed diuretics for between seven months and 12 years before referral. The absence of evidence of plasma volume depletion (as judged by similar concentrations of mean serum urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin in patient and age-matched control groups) suggests that neither systematic diuretic and laxative use or abuse, nor episodic overeating and vomiting were responsible for symptoms of idiopathic oedema in our patients. Idiopathic oedema has a strong genetic basis, and correction of major and minor risk factors for this condition leads to substantial amelioration of symptoms in most cases.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7894988&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Jun;8(3):329-36.
Comparative effects of intraduodenal psyllium and senna on canine small bowel motility.
Ashraf W, Lof J, Jin G, Quigley EM.
Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha 68198-2000.
BACKGROUND/AIM: To define the possible contribution of altered small intestinal motor activity to side-effects of bulking fibres, we sought to compare the relative effects of intraduodenal and intracolonic administration of the bulking fibre psyllium and the anthraquinone laxative senna on canine small intestinal motor activity. METHODS: Motor activity was recorded by serosal strain gauges implanted along the small intestine in 6 dogs. In random order, the motor responses to the instillation of psyllium (in doses of 5 or 10 g), senna (10 mg/kg) or appropriate vehicle (200 ml water infusion or saline 5 ml bolus) into either the proximal duodenum or proximal colon were assessed. RESULTS: The intra-duodenal administration of psyllium in either dose consistently induced a prolonged burst of 'clustered' contractions; in contrast, clusters were infrequent and of short duration following instillation of either vehicle or senna (P < 0.05). Intraduodenal instillation of psyllium inhibited migrating motor complex (MMC) migration and consistently delayed the onset of the next MMC cycle; a similar inhibition occurred with vehicle, however. Neither senna nor its vehicle inhibited MMC migration. None of these agents had any effect on small intestinal motor activity when instilled directly into the colon. CONCLUSIONS: Psyllium administered directly into the duodenum inhibits MMC activity and consistently induces 'clustered' contractions. Whilst the MMC-inhibitory effect appears to be a non-specific volume-related phenomenon, the induction of clusters is independent of volume or laxation. These motor effects of psyllium may contribute to the gastrointestinal symptomatology related to such agents and could be avoided by the preferential releas
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