Diabetes Educ. 1995 May-Jun;21(3):223-32.
Treating constipation in the patient with diabetes.
Patients with diabetes have a significant risk of developing severe constipation often due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Constipation is a symptom, rather than a disease, and is characterized by decreased defecation frequency, increased stool hardness, and/or difficulty passing fecal matter. Self-treatment of constipation with over-the-counter laxative products, home remedies, and foodstuffs is commonplace. Patients frequently call upon health professionals for advice regarding constipation. The diabetes educator should be familiar with the causes and rational treatment of this disorder in the person with diabetes.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7758391&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Drug Chem Toxicol. 1995 Feb;18(1):83-103.
Subchronic feeding study of four white mineral oils in dogs and rats.
Smith JH, Bird MG, Lewis SC, Freeman JJ, Hogan GK, Scala RA.
Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ 08875-2350, USA.
Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted on four highly refined white mineral oils to determine any potential for toxicity in Long-Evans rats (20 per sex per dose level) and beagle dogs (4 per sex per dose level). Each oil was fed at dietary dose levels of 300 ppm and 1500 ppm (w/w). No treatment-related effects of toxicological importance were detected in daily observations of general health or in periodic assessments of food consumption and body weight, hematology, serum clinical chemistry, and urinalysis. Observations in dogs suggested that the white oils produced mild laxative effects. Gross and histopathologic examinations, as well as measurements of organ weights, did not reveal any macroscopic or microscopic changes which could be due to treatment. In addition, special staining by Oil Red O of liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, stomach, and kidneys indicated no evidence of oil or lipid deposition. A special re-examination of tissues from female and male rats, in response to more recent conflicting data from the Fischer 344 strain, found no histopathologic signs of macrophage accumulation and/or microgranuloma formation in liver, spleen, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These data indicate that repeated exposure to relatively high levels of white mineral oils in the diets does not produce significant subchronic toxicity in Long-Evans rats or beagle dogs.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7768201&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Ann Intern Med. 1995 Jul 15;123(2):97-100.
Stool composition in factitial diarrhea: a 6-year experience with stool analysis.
Phillips S, Donaldson L, Geisler K, Pera A, Kochar R.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of stool water analysis in the management of patients with chronic diarrhea. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 6 years of experience. SETTING: A specialized laboratory in a major referral center. PATIENTS: 325 patients with diarrhea who were referred for stool chemistry analysis. Fecal analysis was requested by many internists and gastroenterologists. Patient records were reviewed to establish the final and most likely cause of diarrhea. RESULTS: One third of patients provided samples that were inappropriate for analysis, but data from 202 persons were available. The usefulness of the general separation of cases of chronic diarrhea into those in which patients had predominantly osmotic pathophysiologies and those in which patients had predominantly secretory pathophysiologies was confirmed, but overlap and intra-individual variability limited the usefulness of this approach in individual patients. Thirty-five patients (17%) had a diagnosis of factitial diarrhea (30 because of laxative use and 5 because of fluid added to stools). CONCLUSIONS: Among selected subpopulations, the chemical analysis of fresh stools has a role in the evaluation of obscure examples of chronic diarrhea. It is especially useful in identifying factitial diarrhea.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7778841&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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