J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Aug;98(4):228-32.
Frequency of defaecation and stool consistency in Nigerian students.
Olubuyide IO, Olawuyi F, Fasanmade AA.
Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.
To provide a context in which to interpret reports of bowel dysfunction, it is important to know bowel patterns of the general population. We asked 600 apparently healthy students at the Medical School of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, to complete a questionnaire. Their diet consists mainly of foods derived from tubers and legumes such as yam, cassava and beans. The majority of our students defaecated between three times per day and three times per week. Subjects with one bowel movement per day were in the minority. There were no marked differences in bowel frequencies between sexes or nationalities. Most defaecations occurred in the early morning, in women earlier than in men. There was no relation between bowel frequency and stool consistency. Approximately 20% of subjects took laxatives regularly. More often than not, laxatives were taken for reasons unrelated to bowel habit, indicating the need for a health education programme to warn against self-medication and indiscriminate use of laxatives in the population. Our results are compared to reported findings in surveys of other populations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7636918&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
J Adolesc Health. 1995 Jun;16(6):438-47.
Changes in psychological variables and health behaviors by dieting status over a three-year period in a cohort of adolescent females.
French SA, Perry CL, Leon GR, Fulkerson JA.
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454-1019, USA.
PURPOSE: Psychologic and behavioral changes associated with frequent dieting were examined. Compared to nondieters, frequent dieters were hypothesized to show more adverse psychologic changes and increased use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, but possibly healthier eating and exercise behavior changes, over the three-year period of observation. METHODS: A prospective study of female students, in grades 7-10 at baseline completed a health behavior survey in school once a year for a total of three years. RESULTS: Restrained eating, body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, self-induced vomiting, laxative use, diet pill use, and alcohol use, significantly increased, and physical appearance and self-concept significantly decreased among frequent dieters, compared to non-dieters. Changes in scores on five EDI subscales, eight self-esteem subscales, weight fluctuations, dietary intake, and physical activity patterns did not significantly differ over time by dieting status. CONCLUSION: Dieting may reflect a general pattern of unhealthy behaviors adopted in adolescence, rather than act as a causal factor in promoting psychologic distress.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7669793&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
J Korean Med Sci. 1994 Oct;9(5):388-93.
The changes in electrolytes and acid-base balance after artificially induced acute diarrhea by laxatives.
Kim HJ, Yoon YM, Park KN.
Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Following the acute diarrhea in patients (n = 24) overnight with commonly used laxatives for bowel preparation, the changes in electrolytes and acid-base balance in blood and urine were investigated. Though no alterations of serum sodium or potassium concentrations were noted, mild but significant reduction of mean values (+/- SEM) of plasma pH and HCO3 after diarrhea when compared to those before it developed (pH, from 7.42 +/- 0.01 to 7.39 +/- 0.01, p < 0.01; HCO3, from 25.8 +/- 0.6 to 23.7 +/- 0.6 mEq/L, p < 0.05). However, significant reduction of concentration in spot urine sodium from 150 +/- 12.3 to 93 +/- 14 mEq/g of crea. (p < 0.01) and increase in spot urine potassium from 33 +/- 3.2 to 51 +/- 6.0 mEq/g of crea. (p < 0.05) following diarrhea were seen with significant reduction of urine pH from 6.67 +/- 0.21 to 5.5 +/- 0.13 (p < 0.001). Also, with this effective urinary acidification following diarrhea, a significant reduction of urinary anion gap as well as significant increment of spot urine ammonium was accompanied (anion gap, from 80.4 +/- 11.1 to 44 +/- 8.5 mEq/g of crea. p < 0.001; ammonium, from 87 +/- 18.5 to 229 +/- 37 mg/g of crea. p < 0.001) in addition to the significant inverse correlation between these changes in spot urine from basal levels in 24 study subjects (y = -1.13 x +61, r = 0.7, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we observed that the acute diarrhea with laxatives used for bowel preparation caused a mild degree of metabolic acidosis with no changes in blood electrolytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7702787&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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