Cancer Res. 1996 Nov 1;56(21):4922-6.
Phenolphthalein exposure causes multiple carcinogenic effects in experimental model systems.
Dunnick JK, Hailey JR.
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Phenolphthalein (a triphenylmethane derivative) has been commonly used as a laxative for most of the twentieth century, but little is known about its long-term carcinogenic potential in experimental studies. In our studies, phenolphthalein administered continuously in the feed for 2 years to F344 rats at doses of 0, 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm and to C57BL/6 x CH3 F1 (hereafter called B6C3F1) mice at doses of 0, 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm caused multiple carcinogenic effects. Treatment-related neoplasms occurred in the kidney and adrenal medulla in male rats, adrenal medulla in female rats, hematopoietic system in male and female mice (histiocytic sarcomas and malignant lymphomas), and ovary of female mice. Phenolphthalein has been shown to have estrogenic and clastogenic properties. Previous studies of other estrogenic chemicals (e.g., zearalenone) in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse have not shown the same spectrum of carcinogenic activity as that found with phenolphthalein, suggesting that phenolphthalein estrogenic activity alone is not responsible for the spectrum of tumors observed. It is more likely that the multiple biological properties of phenolphthalein, including its ability to form free radicals, its clastogenic activity, and its estrogenic activity, contributed to the carcinogenic effects observed. These studies show that phenolphthalein is a multisite/multispecies carcinogen. One of the sites for neoplasm that is of particular concern is the ovary, and epidemiology studies are under way to identify any potential effects of phenolphthalein exposure at this site in humans.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8895745&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
J Adolesc Health. 1996 Oct;19(4):289-96.
Psychosocial predictors of binge eating and purging behaviors among adolescents with and without diabetes mellitus.
Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Toporoff E, Cassuto N, Resnick MD, Blum RW.
Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454-1015, USA.
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare dieting, binge eating, and purging behaviors, and to examine predictors of binge eating and purging behaviors among adolescents with and without Diabetes Mellitus (DM). METHODS: The index group included 310 adolescents who reported that they had DM on a statewide population survey of 36,284 adolescents in grades 7-12 in Minnesota. The comparison group included a random sample matched for socioeconomic status (SES), of 850 adolescents without chronic illness. Disordered eating behaviors assessed in the present study included binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, and diuretic use. Potential predictor variables assessed included weight loss behaviors, body image, sexual abuse, sexual attractions, emotional well-being, family connectedness, poor school performance, age, race, Body Mass Index (BMI), and SES. RESULTS: Binge eating and purging were significantly more prevalent among adolescents with DM than among the comparison group. Different risk profiles were found for adolescents with and without DM and for males and females. Predictors of binge eating and purging among females with DM included weight dissatisfaction, bisexual/homosexual attractions, and younger age. Predictors among males with DM included bisexual/homosexual attractions, younger age, sexual abuse, and an interaction between sexual abuse and emotional well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with DM should be screened for unhealthy weight control practices and eating disorders. If disordered eating is present, clinicians need to be sensitive to the variety of factors possibly associated with these behaviors among different individuals.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8897107&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative [PubMed
Int J Eat Disord. 1996 Dec;20(4):359-65.
Multi-impulsivity among women with bulimia nervosa.
Wiederman MW, Pryor T.
Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
OBJECTIVE: The results of past research suggest the possible existence of a distinct subgroup of bulimic individuals who display multiple behaviors indicative of impulsivity (e.g., stealing, self-injury, attempted suicide, drug abuse). We further investigated potential relationships between multi-impulsivity and other clinical variables. METHOD: We compared women with bulimia nervosa (purging type) who displayed "multi-impulsivity" (n = 40) to those who did not (n = 177) with regard to symptom history and presentation, eating-disordered attitudes, and sexual experience. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in mean age, body mass index, scores on scales of eating-disordered attitudes and traits, incidence of self-induced vomiting, sexual intercourse, or masturbation, and current frequency of binge eating and self-induced vomiting. However, relative to the comparison group, women in the multi-impulsive group reported earlier onset of binge eating and sexual intercourse, a greater incidence of laxative abuse, and use of a greater number of different substances. There were statistical trends (p < .10) toward the multi-impulsive group displaying earlier onset of self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, and masturbation. DISCUSSION: Results are discussed in relation to the results of past research and the implications for treatment of bulimic women.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8953323&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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