Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 Jan;20(1):1-6.
Binge eating disorder and the night-eating syndrome.
Stunkard A, Berkowitz R, Wadden T, Tanrikut C, Reiss E, Young L.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine in three samples of obese women the prevalence of two eating disorders--binge eating disorder and the night-eating syndrome. METHOD: Interviews utilizing standard criteria. For binge eating disorder: the consumption of large amounts of food in a discrete period of time together with a subjective sense of loss of control and no vomiting or laxative abuse. For the night-eating syndrome: morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia and insomnia. Determining the rate of binging among patients receiving a placebo. SUBJECTS: (1) 102 viewers of a television show describing binge eating disorder; (2) 50 participants in a trial of medication for this disorder and (3) 79 participants in a weight reduction program. RESULTS: In the television sample 19.6% of respondents and in the weight reduction sample 7.6% met criteria for binge eating disorder; all subjects in the medication sample met criteria. During a 4-week placebo period average binge frequency fell from 6.0 to 1.7 binges per week. The night-eating syndrome was manifested by 13.7% of the television sample, 8.9% of the weight reduction sample and 15.0% in the medication trial sample. There was little overlap between the two disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Binge eating disorder is far less frequent than has been believed on the basis of questionnaire studies and it is highly responsive to placebos. Frequency of the night-eating syndrome is comparable to that of binge eating disorder. Future studies should assess binge eating disorder by interview rather than by self-administered questionnaire.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8788315&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Int J Eat Disord. 1996 Jul;20(1):13-8.
Laxative abuse among women with eating disorders: an indication of psychopathology?
Pryor T, Wiederman MW, McGilley B.
Eating Disorders Program, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita 67214, USA.
OBJECTIVE: The results of the scant research on laxative abuse among women with eating disorders suggest that laxative abuse is a diagnostic indicator of greater psychopathology. We further investigated the relationship of history of laxative abuse to eating and related attitudes, impulsivity, and personality pathology. METHOD: Women assessed in an outpatient clinical setting and diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type (n = 51) or bulimia nervosa, purging type (n = 280) completed measures of laxative abuse, eating and related attitudes, and personality psychopathology at intake. RESULTS: More than one-half of both groups had abused laxatives at some point. History of laxative abuse was unrelated to eating disorder diagnostic category, current age or body weight, history of stealing, self-induced injury, having attempted suicide, interpersonal distrust, maturity fears, or compulsive or dependent personality features. Compared to nonabusers, laxative abusers demonstrated more perfectionism and avoidant personality features. Significant statistical interactions among variables revealed that bulimia nervosa patients who had abused laxatives exhibited the most pathological scores on scales measuring drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, lack of interoceptive awareness, and passive-aggressive and borderline personality features. Anorexia nervosa patients who had abused laxatives had the highest scores on the histrionic scale. DISCUSSION: Results are discussed with regard to past research and clinical implications. We propose that laxative abuse among eating disordered women may serve different functions depending on diagnosis and underlying personality dynamics.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8807348&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative d
Int J Eat Disord. 1996 Jul;20(1):99-103.
Purging behaviors, suicide attempts, and psychiatric symptoms in 398 eating disordered subjects.
Favaro A, Santonastaso P.
Institute of Psychiatry, University of Padua, Italy.
OBJECTIVE: The present work investigates differences in psychiatric symptoms and self-injurious behaviors among different forms of purging behavior in eating disorders (ED). METHOD: The sample was composed of 398 subjects consecutively referred to an outpatient ED unit. RESULTS: Both in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), psychiatric symptoms were significantly more serious in purging compared to nonpurging groups, while no significant difference emerged among divergent forms of purging behaviors. The presence of multiple methods to control weight appeared to be a predictor of impulsive behaviors, as subjects who used both vomiting and laxatives reported significantly higher frequency of self-injurious behaviors. In BN, the self-injury was often a suicide attempt. DISCUSSION: The impact of purging behavior on the prognosis of AN and BN should be further studied since our research has shown a trend towards more frequent self-damaging behaviors in subjects who resort to multiple forms of purging behavior.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8807357&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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