N Engl J Med. 1996 May 2;334(18):1163-7.
The prevalence of occult gastrointestinal bleeding in celiac sprue.
Department of Gastrointestinal Research. Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75246, USA.
BACKGROUND. Iron deficiency complicating celiac sprue is usually attributed to the malabsorption of dietary iron or the loss of iron from the intestinal mucosa. There has been little investigation of the role of intestinal loss of blood in patients with this condition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of occult gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with celiac sprue. METHODS. We tested one 48- or 72-hour stool collection from each of 8 patients with partial villous atrophy and 28 patients with total villous atrophy using a guaiac-impregnated card (Hemoccult). Serving as controls were 18 normal subjects, each studied before and during laxative-induced diarrhea; 17 patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea; 63 patients with microscopic colitis; 23 patients with pancreatic steatorrhea; and 7 patients with treated celiac sprue who had normal intestinal histologic features. All the patients underwent a diagnostic workup that included esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium radiography of the small bowel. RESULTS. Positive Hemoccult tests were infrequent in each of the control groups, occurring in 0 to 8 percent of the subjects, whereas 2 of the 8 patients with partial villous atrophy (25 percent) and 15 of the 28 patients with total villous atrophy (54 percent) had positive tests. When the patients with total villous atrophy were classified according to their subsequent responses to a gluten-free diet, 7 of the 17 who were responsive to gluten withdrawal (41 percent) were Hemoccult-positive, as compared with with 8 of the 11 who did not respond to the diet (73 percent). CONCLUSIONS. Occult gastrointestinal bleeding can be detected in about half of patients with celiac sprue and should be added to the list of factors that can contribute to iron defi
Dis Colon Rectum. 1996 May;39(5):520-4.
Clinical and physiologic effects of biofeedback in outlet obstruction constipation.
Ho YH, Tan M, Goh HS.
Department of Colorectal Surgery, Singapore General Hospital.
PURPOSE: We report the results of biofeedback (BF) on patients with outlet obstruction defecation (OOC), including those with and without measurable paradoxical puborectalis contractions (PP). Clinical and anorectal physiologic parameters (ARP) were assessed one week before and after a standardized course of BF. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 48 (standard error of the mean, 2.3) years) were recruited. All had persistent constipation despite six weeks of dietary fiber supplements. Colonic inertia was excluded by transit marker studies. Defecating proctography excluded anatomic abnormalities causing outlet obstruction. Patients underwent four outpatient sessions of biofeedback, each session lasting one hour. RESULTS: After BF, 56 patients (90.3 percent) were subjectively improved. Frequency of spontaneous bowel movements were significantly increased (P = 0.003). Frequency of laxative-induced (P = 0.004) and enema-induced (P = 0.005) stools were reduced. Anal resting (P = 0.04) and squeeze (P = 0.002) pressures were increased. Number of patients with PP was reduced from 40 to 31 (P = 0.004). Presence of PP did not affect response to BF. There were no differences in ARP between the 56 patients who improved and the 6 who did not. There were no side effects or clinical regressions after a mean follow-up of 14.9 (standard error of the means, 0.9) months. CONCLUSIONS: BF effectively treated OOC in 90.3 percent, regardless of PP. Anal pressures were increased, and PP was decreased.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8620801&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Am J Dis Child. 1988 Mar;142(3):326-30.
Abuse, feelings, and health behaviors in a student population.
Hibbard RA, Brack CJ, Rauch S, Orr DP.
Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.
Behavioral sequelae of child abuse are frequently cited, but there are few studies that examine the strength of association between behavioral effect and abuse for children in a nonclinical setting. Seven hundred twelve junior high school students (mean age, 13.5 years) were surveyed for self-report of personal experience with abuse, certain health behaviors, and self-esteem. Physical and/or sexual abuse was reported by 18.3% of students. Both types of abuse were associated with the following behaviors: running away; considering hurting oneself; suicide attempts; and the use of drugs, pot (marijuana), cigarettes, and laxatives. No clinically significant relationships were found between abuse and report of anger, sadness, or self-esteem. These data suggested that some feelings and behaviors were common among all adolescents sampled, while others were more common among abused adolescents. Recognition of strong associations should help direct clinical management. The results of this study confirm findings from some previous reports and indicate the need for further studies of children who are not in a clinical setting.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3422786&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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