South Med J. 1991 Apr;84(4):457-60.
Weight loss and bulimic eating behavior: changing patterns within a population of young adult women.
Frank RE, Serdula MK, Adame D.
Division of Nutrition, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.
A survey of 364 college freshman women was conducted to examine weight loss practices. Nearly 60% of women were currently on a diet to lose or to maintain weight. Since entering college 7 months earlier, 29% had used crash dieting or fasting as a means of weight control. Even though most had experimented with purging and diet pills in high school, most of these had discontinued these practices. Twenty percent had at some time used diet pills, but only 4% were currently users; 13% had at some time used purgatives (vomiting, laxatives, or diuretics), but only 5% were current users. Use of purgatives may indicate a more general pattern of addictive health behavior. Compared to women who had never used purgatives, current purgative users were 4.1 times more likely to smoke (44% vs 11%) and 2.7 times as likely to use drugs (33% vs 12%). Of the 51 women who had ever smoked, 37% listed weight control as a reason for it. Longitudinal investigations are needed to determine how weight loss practices track from adolescence into adulthood and to determine factors predisposing to the establishment of unhealthy weight loss practices, such as severely restrictive dieting, "yo-yo dieting" (weight cycling), and use of diet pills, purgatives, or tobacco.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=2014429&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Pharmacology. 1988;36 Suppl 1:212-20.
Relevance of rhein excretion into breast milk.
Faber P, Strenge-Hesse A.
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Prosper-Klinik, Recklinghausen, FRG.
The excretion of rhein, a laxatively active metabolite of sennosides, was investigated in 100 breast milk samples of 20 post-partum women after intake of a standardized senna laxative (Agiolax), which also contains seeds of Plantago ovata as bulk substances. After daily doses of 5 g of the senna laxative containing 15 mg sennosides for 3 days, the rhein concentration in milk samples from every lactation during 24 h post-dose varied between 0 and 27 ng/ml with values below 10 ng/ml in 94%. Based on median values, 0.007% of the sennoside intake (calculated as rhein) was excreted in breast milk. None of the breast-fed infants had an abnormal stool consistency. Assuming a (theoretical) complete metabolism of sennosides to rhein in the mother, the amount of rhein delivered to the infant (ng/kg b.w.) is by the factor 10(-3) below the rhein intake of the mother.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3368521&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Dec;94(12):3530-40.
Epidemiology of constipation (EPOC) study in the United States: relation of clinical subtypes to sociodemographic features.
Stewart WF, Liberman JN, Sandler RS, Woods MS, Stemhagen A, Chee E, Lipton RB, Farup CE.
Innovative Medical Research, Towson, Maryland, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common heterogeneous condition, possibly encompassing different clinical subtypes. Little is known about the comparative epidemiology of constipation subtypes. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of constipation subtypes and determine whether subtypes differ by sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Between June and September 1997, a telephone interview was conducted with individuals about their bowel habits in the preceding 3 months. Survey data on 15 constipation-related symptoms were used to identify individuals who met prespecified symptom criteria for the following mutually exclusive subgroups: functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), outlet obstruction or delay (outlet), both IBS and outlet (IBS-outlet), and frequent laxative users (i.e., at least every other day). A total of 10,018 eligible individuals in the United States 18 yr of age or older completed the interview. Test-retest reliability of reporting symptoms was assessed in a separate national survey. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for reporting symptoms ranged from 0.54 to 0.83; all but three symptoms had correlations above 0.68. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of constipation was 14.7%. By subtype, prevalence was 4.6% for functional, 2.1% for IBS, 4.6% for outlet, and 3.4% for IBS-outlet. An additional 1.8% of respondents reported laxative use at least every other day. Outlet was the most common subtype among women, whereas functional constipation was the most common subtype among men. The gender ratio varied by subtype, with elevated ratios for outlet (F/M = 1.65) and IBS-outlet (F/M = 2.27) subtypes. The age pattern differed among each of the four subtypes. Pre
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