Mutat Res. 1999 Aug 18;444(2):421-6.
No clastogenic activity of a senna extract in the mouse micronucleus assay.
Mengs U, Grimminger W, Krumbiegel G, Schuler D, Silber W, Volkner W.
Madaus, Ostmerheimer Strasse 198, D-51109, Cologne, Germany.
In previous studies, an analytically well-defined senna extract, commonly used as a laxative, gave positive responses in vitro in the Ames test and in the CHO assay. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genotoxic activity of the same senna extract in an in vivo genotoxicity assay by means of the generally acknowledged MNT. After administration of an oral dose of 2000 mg senna extract/kg to NMRI mice of both genders, which is equivalent to 119 mg potential rhein/kg, 5.74 mg potential aloeemodin/kg and 0. 28 mg potential emodin/kg, there were no elevated levels of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Kinetic studies were performed in parallel to demonstrate target organ availability. Highest concentrations in the plasma were reached after 1 h with 3.4 microg rhein/ml and 0.065 microg aloeemodin/ml. In all cases, emodin was below the limit of quantification. From the results, the in vitro clastogenic activity of the senna extract could not be confirmed in the mouse micronucleus assay. Together with further negative in vivo genotoxicity studies with anthranoids, the conclusion can be drawn that there is no indication so far demonstrating a genotoxic risk for patients taking senna laxatives.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10521682&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Cancer Res. 1999 Oct 15;59(20):5143-7.
Polyethylene-glycol suppresses colon cancer and causes dose-dependent regression of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats.
Parnaud G, Tache S, Peiffer G, Corpet DE.
Securite des Aliments, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, France.
Dietary polyethylene-glycol (PEG) 8000, a nonfermented polymer laxative, strongly suppresses azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of rats, as shown in a previous study (D. E. Corpet et al., Carcinogenesis (Lond.), 20: 915-918, 1999). In the present study, we tested the effect of PEG administered during either initiation or postinitiation, the dose-response effect of PEG, the regressive effect of PEG on established ACF, and the preventive effect of PEG on colon cancers in rats. The general design was to initiate carcinogenesis in F344 rats by a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg) and to randomize the animals 7 days later to AIN-76 diets containing 5% PEG or no PEG (control). At termination, ACF and tumors were scored blindly by a single observer. The administration of 5% PEG for 32 days to groups of 10 female rats in either food or drinking water reduced the number of ACF by a factor of 8 (P = 0.0002) and reduced the number of large ACF by a factor of 20-30 (P = 0.002). No protection was afforded when PEG was given only during the initiation phase. Diets containing 0%, 0.5%, 2%, or 5% PEG fed for 35 days to four groups of male rats inhibited ACF in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.0001). The administration of a 5% PEG diet for 41 days, starting 42 days after carcinogen injection, led to a 73% decrease in the number of ACF (P < 0.0001). Dietary PEG thus caused the regression of established ACF. Macroscopic tumors were evaluated by histology in rats that had been fed a high-fat diet containing cooked casein to promote tumor growth for 81 days. In this accelerated model of carcinogenesis, dietary PEG suppressed the occurrence of co
Fed Regist. 1999 Jan 29;64(19):4535-40.
Laxative drug products for over-the-counter human use. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.
[No authors listed]
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing that the over-the-counter (OTC) stimulant laxative ingredients danthron and phenolphthalein are not generally recognized as safe and effective and are misbranded. FDA is issuing this final rule as part of its ongoing review of OTC drug products after considering data and information on the safety of danthron and phenolphthalein.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10557608&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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