Aging (Milano). 1999 Jun;11(3):186-93.
Drug use in homes for the aged. A comparison between mentally intact and mentally impaired residents.
Nygaard HA, Naik M.
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Norway.
The aim of this study was to analyze drug use in 347 residents in homes for the aged in Bergen, Norway. All drugs prescribed on a regular schedule were assessed, the prevalence of potentially harmful drug combinations, and inappropriately prescribed drugs were studied and related to mental capacity of the residents. Mental capacity was assessed by means of the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). The median number of drugs used was 4.0 (range 0-11, 95% CI 3.0-4.0). Mentally impaired residents consumed fewer drugs than mentally intact ones. In a logistic regression analysis the use of NSAIDS, beta-blockers and anxiolytics was significantly lower in mentally impaired residents (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.80, OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.95, and OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.94, respectively), and the use of laxatives and vitamin B-12 higher (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.04-4.62, and OR 5.08, 95% CI 1.11-23.25, respectively). Twenty percent of mentally intact and 21% of mentally impaired residents have potentially harmful two-by-two drug combinations, and drugs augmenting sedating properties were dominating. The prevalence of inappropriately used drugs was significantly lower in mentally impaired residents (20%) than in mentally intact ones (33%). Antidepressants with anticholinergic properties, benzodiazepines with long half-life and phenothiazines were the most frequent.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10476314&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Pharmacology. 1988;36 Suppl 1:194-202.
Long-term mucosal alterations by sennosides and related compounds.
Dufour P, Gendre P.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Bordeaux II, School of Pharmacy, France.
Sennosides and related compounds are presumed to be severe cell poisons after prolonged ingestion. Some histological and ultrastructural studies in animals and man with such laxative misuse have revealed myenteric plexus and colonic epithelium injuries; but others have failed to point out identical data. In a first histological and ultrastructural study in mouse, we were unable to find any intestinal mucosa injury after long-term sennoside ingestion. In a second long-term experiment, we compared the effects of sennosides and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (synthetic anthracene derivative) on the mouse jejunum and colon. Electron microscopic observations showed nervous myenteric plexus abnormalities only in 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-treated animals. These results suggest that sennosides have a good intestinal mucosa tolerance as opposed to aglycosidic-related compounds.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3368519&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Phytother Res. 1999 Sep;13(6):459-63.
Pharmacological basis for the use of the antivenene water soluble extract of Diodia scandens as a laxative, oxytocic agent and a possible aphrodisiac in traditional medicine practice in eastern nigeria.
Onuaguluchi G, Nwafor P.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria.
The effects of the antivenene fraction of an ethanol extract of Diodia scandens on some mammalian smooth muscles were investigated. On the guinea-pig ileum, the extract was shown to be a partial agonist acting via muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine (ACh) was 2.5 x 10(5) times more potent. On the pregnant guinea-pig uterus, the extract induced concentration-dependent increases in the force of contraction and tonus. Oxytocin and ergometrine were respectively 10(6) and 10(3) times more potent. The extract, at subliminal concentrations, potentiated ACh and adrenaline-induced contractions in the guinea-pig was deferens. It also induced dose-related vasodilatation in the rat hindquarters and depressed the blood pressure in the anaesthetized cat. It was concluded that these pharmacological actions offer some scientific explanation for the use of Diodia scandens in traditional medicine as a laxative and as an oxytocic agent. It is suggested that the extract could enhance erection and ejaculatory processes in the male, thus accounting for its regular use by some elderly males. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10479753&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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