Neurourol Urodyn. 1999;18(3):199-204.
Anal incontinence: prevalence among female patients attending a urogynecologic clinic.
Gordon D, Groutz A, Goldman G, Avni A, Wolf Y, Lessing JB, David MP.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
The present study prospectively surveyed the prevalence of anal incontinence among 283 consecutive female patients attending a urogynecologic outpatient clinic in a maternity hospital. Data concerning bowel habits, laxative use, previous anorectal surgery, and the presence, severity, and frequency of anal incontinence were collected by interviewing the patients. Anal incontinence was reported by 83 women, representing 29% of the study population. Of those reporting anal incontinence, 30% (9% of the study population) were incontinent to solid feces, 22% (6%) to liquid feces, and 48% (14%) to gas. Age distribution demonstrates progressive rise and a high prevalence of anal incontinence in patients older than 60 years. A significant higher rate of vacuum deliveries was found among patients with anal incontinence, compared with continent patients (9.6% vs. 2.5%; P = 0.01). Increased prevalence of anal incontinence was also found among patients with past history of hemorrhoidectomy and those with urodynamic diagnosis of combined genuine stress incontinence and detrusor instability/sensory urgency. In conclusion, in patients attending a urogynecologic clinic, anal incontinence is a frequent, although rarely volunteered, symptom.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10338440&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Soz Praventivmed. 1999;44(3):117-25.
[Analgesics and laxatives as risk factors for cancer in the efferent urinary tract--results of the Berlin Urothelial Carcinoma Study]
[Article in German]
Bronder E, Klimpel A, Helmert U, Greiser E, Molzahn M, Pommer W.
Institut fur Nieren- und Hochdruckforschung Berlin (INHF).
A retrospective case-control study (1990-1995), the Berlin Urothelial Cancer Study (BUS), examined analgesics and laxatives as risks for the induction of urothelial cancer in renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Especially for renal pelvis cancer could observe substance and dose specific risk of compound analgesics. The analgesic substances Phenacetin, Paracetamol, Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and Pyrazolones were assessed. Besides a risk of contact laxatives (chemical or anthranoide ingredients) for urothelial cancer was found, not yet described. The highest risk shows the anthranoide plant Senna. Thus this study confirms the risk of specific analgesic ingredients and found an evidence for a new risk of contact laxatives. As both, analgesics and contact laxatives, are typical OTC--("Over the counter") products, a severe controlling is demanded and for laxatives further studies are needed.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10436491&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 May;37(5):481-91.
Occurrence of emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in vegetables, herbs and liquors. Genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity of the anthraquinones and of the whole plants.
Mueller SO, Schmitt M, Dekant W, Stopper H, Schlatter J, Schreier P, Lutz WK.
Department of Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Germany.
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones, present in laxatives, fungi imperfecti, Chinese herbs and possibly vegetables, are in debate as human carcinogens. We screened a variety of vegetables (cabbage lettuce, beans, peas), some herbs and herbal-flavoured liquors for their content of the 'free' anthraquinones emodin, chrysophanol and physcion. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, reversed-phase HPLC (RP-LC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and RP-LC-MS were used. The vegetables showed a large batch-to-batch variability, from 0.04 to 3.6, 5.9 and 36 mg total anthraquinone per kg fresh weight in peas, cabbage lettuce, and beans, respectively. Physcion predominated in all vegetables. In the herbs grape vine leaves, couch grass root and plantain herb, anthraquinones were above the limit of detection. Contents ranged below 1 mg/kg (dry weight). All three anthraquinones were also found in seven of 11 herbal-flavoured liquors, in a range of 0.05 mg/kg to 7.6 mg/kg. The genotoxicity of the analysed anthraquinones was investigated in the comet assay, the micronucleus test and the mutation assay in mouse lymphoma L5178Y tk+/- cells. Emodin was genotoxic, whereas chrysophanol and physcion showed no effects. Complete vegetable extract on its own did not show any effect in the micronucleus test. A lettuce extract completely abolished the induction of micronuclei by the genotoxic anthraquinone danthron. Taking into consideration the measured concentrations of anthraquinones, estimated daily intakes, the genotoxic potency, as well as protective effects of the food matrix, the analysed constituents do not represent a high priority genotoxic risk in a balanced human
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