J Pediatr Surg. 2001 May;36(5):777-9.
Intestinal neuronal dysplasia: results of treatment in 33 patients.
Gillick J, Tazawa H, Puri P.
Children's Research Centre, Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Dublin, Ireland.
PURPOSE: Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is a disease of the enteric nervous system, which clinically resembles Hirschsprung's disease. The authors reviewed their experience of IND over an 8-year period. METHODS: Between 1992 and 1999, 418 patients underwent rectal suction biopsy for persistent constipation. Thirty-three (7.8%) patients had histologic evidence of IND. There were 26 boys and 7 girls (age range, 1 week to 10 years). The diagnosis of IND was based on the presence of hyperganglionosis of the submucous plexus and giant ganglia and at least one of the following features in rectal biopsies: (1) ectopic ganglia, (2) increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the lamina propria, and (3) increased AChE nerve fibers around the submucosal blood vessels. All patients were started on laxatives with or without enemas after the diagnosis was made. Patients have been followed up from 1 to 8 years (mean, 2.4 years). RESULTS: Twenty-one (64%) patients had a good response to conservative management and currently have normal bowel habits. Twelve patients (36%) underwent internal sphincter myectomy after failed conservative management. Seven of these patients now have normal bowel habits. Two patients are able to stay clean with regular enemas. Three patients who continued to have persistent constipation after myectomy and underwent resection of redundant and dilated sigmoid colon now have normal bowel habits. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with IND can be treated successfully with conservative treatment. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11329588&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Feb;11(1):48-51.
Idiopathic megarectum in children.
Godbole PP, Pinfield A, Stringer MD.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, UK.
There is scant information about the management of idiopathic megarectum in childhood. Children with idiopathic megarectum referred to a single institution between 1994 and 1998 were identified prospectively. Those with Hirschsprung's disease or an anorectal malformation were excluded. The remaining patient group, 22 boys and 7 girls, had a median age of 8.0 years (range 3.5-14.0 y). Median duration of symptoms prior to referral was 2.0 years (range 0.4-11 y). Chronic soiling was the dominant complaint in 28/29 (97%) cases. 23 children had received regular stimulant laxatives for periods ranging from 1 month to 11 years, and 9 children had been treated with regular enemas. The degree of megarectum assessed by both abdominal palpation and plain radiography was: grade 1 (below umbilical level) n=6; grade 2 (at umbilical level) n=15; and grade 3 (above umbilical level) n=8. Hirschsprung's disease was specifically excluded by rectal biopsy in all cases and no patient had evidence of spinal dysraphism. Three boys with massive megarectums and intractable symptoms were treated by a staged Duhamel sigmoid pull-through with excellent functional results. Fifteen patients (52%) were treated by a single manual evacuation under general anaesthesia followed by a daily Bisacodyl 5-10 mg suppository. After a median follow-up of 16 months, 13 continue to respond well with a daily bowel action and no soiling (4 of the 13 have discontinued treatment and remain well). The remaining 11 patients (38%) have continued conventional treatment with oral laxatives but with limited success. Idiopathic megarectum is poorly described in children. It is more common in boys and is often resistant to laxative therapy alone. After appropriate preparation, treatment with stimulant suppositories can be effective. Surgery has a valuable role in
Gut. 2001 Aug;49(2):214-9.
Response to a behavioural treatment, biofeedback, in constipated patients is associated with improved gut transit and autonomic innervation.
Emmanuel AV, Kamm MA.
St Mark's Hospital, Northwick Park, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK.
BACKGROUND: Although behavioural treatment (biofeedback) successfully treats the pelvic floor abnormalities in patients with idiopathic constipation, many patients also normalise their impaired bowel frequency. We postulated that a response may be associated with altered cerebral outflow via extrinsic autonomic nerves to the gut. We investigated whether treatment changes extrinsic innervation, using mucosal laser Doppler flowmetry, whether autonomic changes are gut specific, and whether it changes gut transit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty nine patients (44 female, mean age 39 years) with idiopathic constipation were studied before and after biofeedback treatment (mean five sessions). Rectal mucosal blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry to assess direct extrinsic gut nerve autonomic activity. To assess general autonomic activity, RR (interval between successive R waves on the electrocardiogram) variability, Valsalva ratio, orthostatic adjustment ratio, and phase II:IV blood pressure ratio (II:IV) of the Valsalva manoeuvre were measured. All autonomic tests were compared with those of 26 healthy volunteers (19 female, mean age 37 years). RESULTS: Twenty nine of 49 patients were symptomatically improved. Treatment reduced those with < or =3 bowel actions per week (27 v 9, pre v post), need to strain (26 v 9), and laxative or suppository use (34 v 9). Biofeedback reduced retained markers by 32% in those with slow transit and by 20% in those with normal transit. Twenty two had slow transit before treatment-14 felt symptomatic improvement of whom 13 developed normal transit. There was a significantly greater increase in rectal mucosal blood flow in patients who subjectively improved compared with those
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