Equine Vet J. 2001 Jan;33(1):59-64.
Abdominal radiography in monitoring the resolution of sand accumulations from the large colon of horses treated medically.
Ruohoniemi M, Kaikkonen R, Raekallio M, Luukkanen L.
Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
This retrospective study consisted of 14 horses (age 6 weeks-12 years) with radiographically evident sand accumulations cranioventrally in the abdomen and clinical signs suggestive of sand enteropathy. The horses were treated medically and resolution of sand was monitored radiographically. Routine treatment consisted of psyllium mucilloid, combined with magnesium sulphate and/or mineral oilif needed. Initially, the number, size and shape of the sand accumulations showed large variation and the response to therapy was not predictable based on the initial appearance of the accumulation. In 2 foals, some of the sand was passed and the rest was mixed with other intestinal contents within 2-4 days. Even large accumulations disappeared in 2-4 days with psyllium alone or combined with mineral oil in 4 horses. In another 4 horses, the size of the accumulations decreased but varying amounts remained approximately at the same site, despite treatment for 1-4 weeks, and all these horses also had either gastric or large colon impaction. Three horses had a limited response to psyllium treatment, but the accumulation resolved with repeated doses of magnesium sulphate, with or without mineral oil. One horse did not respond to prolonged laxative treatment but the accumulation resolved on pasture. Clinical improvement was not necessarily related to the resolution of sand. Radiography of the cranioventral abdomen was found to be a useful means for monitoring the resolution of sand and confirming the effect of medical treatment in removing sand from the large colon in the horse.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11191612&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Mil Med. 2001 Jan;166(1):53-8.
Prevalence and contributing factors of eating disorder behaviors in active duty service women in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines.
Department of Nursing Research, Naval Hospital, Okinawa, Japan.
Eating disorders continue to be studied among civilian women. Gross disturbances in eating behaviors characterize the condition of anorexia nervosa (AN), currently seen among 1 to 2% of non-active duty women. Bulimia nervosa (BN) is prevalent among 2% of the female population, and both disorders have a female-to-male ratios of 10:1. Another category of eating disorders known as not otherwise specified (NOS) occurs in 3 to 35% of individuals in the reported literature. This study examined the prevalence of AN, BN, and NOS among a large sample of active duty women currently serving in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. Multiple military, professional, and behavioral variables were analyzed to provide an increased understanding and awareness of these disorders among all active duty service women. This descriptive, correlational study of 3,613 service women targeted females from the total population of three major medical centers (Army, Navy, and Air Force) and the total population of Marine women serving in Okinawa, Japan, at the time of the study. Anonymous survey return was obtained at 34% (N = 1,278). The study revealed an overall prevalence of 1.1% for AN, 8.1% for BN, and 62.8% for NOS among all service women. However, AN, BN, and NOS were found at significantly higher rates (p = 0.000) among women in the Marines, who reported AN at 4.9%, BN at 15.9%, and NOS at 76.7%. Use of laxatives, diuretics, diet pills, vomiting, and fasting for standards increased during the body measurement and fitness periods for all services, but year-round use of many of these behaviors occurred at significantly higher rates among Marines (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis predicted several factors associated with the manifestation of eating
Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2000 Dec;10(6):382-6.
Quantitation of defecation function using radionuclide artificial stool in children with chronic constipation.
Kiristioglu I, Akbunar T, Kilic N, Ozel I, Alper E, Dogruyol H.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Uludag University, Medical Faculty, Bursa, Turkey.
We aimed to investigate the value of scintigraphically determined evacuation fraction (EVF) as an objective follow-up criterion in medically treated children with chronic constipation, and to evaluate the relation between patients' symptoms and rectal emptying rate. Thirty children (m: 22, f: 8, mean age: 8.9 +/- 0.9 year) suffering from chronic constipation were assessed by scintigraphic evacuation study. All patients underwent anal manometric and scintigraphic examinations before their therapy was started. During 3 months, they received conventional laxative treatment for constipation, and scintigraphic studies were repeated in 20 of 30 patients. Scintigraphic examinations consisted of instillation of artificial stool into the rectum up to the volume impending rectal evacuation, and acquisition of pre- and post-evacuation images. EVF values were then calculated from the images using a fixed region of interest. All of the patients had high resting anal canal pressure (75 +/- 12 mmHg) and had positive rectoanal inhibitory reflex. In 14/20 patients (70%) who benefited from therapy, mean EVF changed from 43.6% to 62.2% (p < 0.001), while decreasing in 6120 who did not benefit. The volume arousing rectal evacuation was significantly lower at the second scintigraphic study (261 +/- 98 ml) than the first study (354 +/- 138 ml) (p < 0.05). As a conclusion: 1) EVF was low in chronically constipated children, 2) it was improved after conventional laxative treatment and, 3) radionuclide EVF determination may be a useful method for follow-up.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11215780&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
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