Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2000 May-Jun;36(3):344-53.
[Oxyanthraquinones and flavonoids from garland chrysanthenum]
[Article in Russian]
Gins VK, Kolesnikov MP, Kononkov PF, Trishin ME, Gins MS.
Institute of Fundamental Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow oblast, Russia.
The stems of the vegetable plant garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) were shown to contain emodin (in its aglycon and glycoside forms) and chrysophanol. Chrysophanol and chrysazin were isolated from the roots of the plant. Because the pigments identified are derivatives of 1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone, garland chrysanthemum may be a medicinal plant and have utility as a component of laxative species. The leaves of C. coronarium were shown to be rich in quercetin and its glycosides, rutin and isoquercetin. Taken together, this observation and the known high content of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in the plant suggest that C. coronarium may be useful in preventing cardiac and vascular diseases.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10867957&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 2000;20(4):209-17.
Phenolphthalein induces chromosome aberrations in human and Chinese hamster liver cells (CHEL) cultured in vitro.
Biondi O, Andreozzi L, Amoruso S, Motta S.
Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Catania, Italy.
Phenolphthalein is a nonprescription laxative agent that has been widely used during this century. Recent studies in animal models have shown that phenolphthalein has carcinogenic activity. In order to assess cytogenetic effects on human cells in vitro, we tested phenolphthalein in a chromosome aberration assay in human embryo cells derived from amniotic fluid. Our results show that phenolphthalein induces a significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in human cells. The lowest dose level at which the clastogenic effect is evident is 23.2 microg/ml. Similar positive results were obtained in a Chinese hamster liver cell line, which is metabolically competent to activate different classes of promutagens and procarcinogens into biologically active metabolites. Instead, parallel experiments in Chinese hamster ovary cells did not show any clastogenic effect due to phenolphthalein. These latter data suggested that phenolphthalein acts as a promutagen and must be metabolically activated to exert its clastogenic effect. Teratogenesis Carcinog. Mutagen. 20:209-217, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10910471&dopt=Abstract constipation laxative
Toxicol Sci. 2000 Aug;56(2):271-81.
Toxicokinetics of phenolphthalein in male and female rats and mice.
Collins BJ, Grizzle TB, Dunnick JK.
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233. USA. collinsbniehs.nih.gov
Phenolphthalein (PTH), which has been used as the active ingredient in a number of prescription and over-the-counter laxative products, is a rodent chemical carcinogen in multiple organs in the NTP 2-year bioassay at doses of 291-2927 mg/kg. This paper describes the toxicokinetics and estimates the internal dose of PTH administered as a single iv or gavage dose, or ad libitum for 14 days in feed to F344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, p53 (+/-) mice, and C57BL mice at doses that bracketed those used in the bioassay. Plasma concentrations for free phenolphthalein (PTH-F) and phenolphthalein glucuronide (PTH-G) were obtained for each dose regimen. Total phenolphthalein (PTH-T) was calculated as the sum of the molar concentrations of PTH-F and PTH-G. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic models were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) from 0 h to infinity (AUC(infinity)), clearance (Cl), and oral bioavailability (F) for PTH-F; and were used to calculate AUC(infinity), t((1/2)), and relative absorption (Q) for PTH-T. After iv administration, PTH-F rapidly declined in rats and mice; PTH-T rose rapidly to Cmax and slowly declined 6-8 h after dosing, with no sex-related differences for rats or mice. For feed studies, mean plasma concentration (f1.gif" BORDER="0">(infinity)) and 24-h area under the curve (AUC(24h)) values were calculated. Results from feed studies showed no dose response in rat plasma PTH-F above approximately 50 mg/kg. Rat PTH-T AUC(24h) and f1.gif" BORDER="0">(infinity) were linear with doses up to approximately 650 mg/kg. In B6C3F1 mice, PTH-F and PTH-T AUC(24h) increased nonlinearly with doses above approximately 165 mg/kg. PTH is well absorbed and readily converted to PTH-G when administe
Laxative and constipation online literature ||
Constipation and laxative online literature ||
Constipation and laxative online literature ||
Colon cleansing online literature
DreamPharm: Herbal and Nutritional supplements online ||
Hair Million herbal formula for hair loss and hair growth ||
Hair Million, excellent herbal formula, wards off hair loss and promotes hair growth ||
Buy Tramadol ||