Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Nov;18(9):2505-14.
Estradiol modulates acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ signals in LHRH-releasing GT1-7 cells through a membrane binding site.
Morales A, Diaz M, Ropero AB, Nadal A, Alonso R.
Department of Physiology, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
Estrogen regulation of the female reproductive axis involves the rapid inhibition (< 30 min) of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion from hypothalamic neurons. This fast time-course suggests interactions with potential plasma membrane binding sites that could result in short-term effects on LHRH neurons. Because LHRH release is calcium dependent, we have studied the acute effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estradiol-peroxidase (E-HRP) on the elevations of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in LHRH-producing GT1-7 cells. Exposure to ACh (1-100 micro m) induced transient increases of [Ca2+]i, whereas pretreatment with E2 or E-HRP (10 nm) for 2 min reduced this response by 50-60%. The effect was specific for E2 as neither 17alpha-estradiol (1 micro m) nor the synthetic antiestrogens ICI182 780 (1 micro m) or tamoxifen (1 micro m) elicited any change on the ACh-induced Ca2+ signal. Both the latency of the effect and the response to the membrane impermeant conjugate suggested a membrane-mediated mechanism. Such membrane binding sites for E2 in GT1-7 cells were demonstrated by visualizing the binding of E-HRP and estradiol-BSA-fluorescein isothiocyanate (E-BSA-FITC) conjugates. Competition studies showed that E-HRP binding was blocked by preincubation with E2, but not with 17alpha-E2, ICI182 780, tamoxifen or progesterone, indicating that the plasma membrane binding site is highly specific for E2 and exhibits a pharmacological profile different from classical estrogen receptors. We conclude that ACh-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in GT1-7 cells is modulated acutely by physiological E2 concentrations in a manner which is compatible with the existence of an estrogen-specific membra
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003 Dec;14(6):585-91.
Alternative hormone replacement regimens: is there a need for further clinical trials?
Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, One Autumn Street, 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA. fweltaregroup.harvard.edu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the randomized trials of hormone replacement therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg a day plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg a day increased the risk of cardiovascular events during the first year of treatment in women both with and without coronary heart disease. Conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate also increased the overall risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in women without coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction or death in women with coronary heart disease, and also increased the risk of breast cancer, cognitive decline and dementia. Unopposed, oral 17B-estradiol increased the risk of stroke during the first 6 months of treatment in women with a previous stroke. Oral 17B-estradiol with or without cyclic progestin had no effect on the progression of atherosclerosis or reinfarction. Transdermal 17B-estradiol plus cyclic progestin was associated with a non-significant increase in coronary heart disease events in women with coronary heart disease. Compared with placebo, cardiovascular events increased in the ongoing estrogen-only arm of the Women's Health Initiative, indicating that unopposed conjugated equine estrogen is unlikely to be cardioprotective. However, oral 17B-estradiol retarded the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger women without coronary heart disease. SUMMARY: Hormone replacement therapy should not be initiated for the primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in women. A trial of 17B-estradiol started at menopause in women without coronary heart disease should be considered.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14624135&dopt=Abstract estradiol [PubMed - in process]
Growth Factors. 2003 Jun;21(2):61-9.
Interactions of insulin-like growth factors and estradiol in rat pituitary gonadotrophs.
Weiss JM, Chi M, Polack S, Diedrich K, Ortmann O.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck, Germany. juergen.weisrauenklinik.uni-luebeck.de
Insulin-like growth factors are involved in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has an augmenting effect on gonodotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) release from female rat gonadotrophs that is facilitated by estradiol. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether IGF-I influences total LH pool and the production of intracellular inositol phosphate. In another series of experiments we tested whether IGF-II and estradiol affect LH release of gonadotrophs. Pituitary cells were incubated with 100 pM IGF-I and/or 100 pM estradiol for 24 h. They were stimulated, partially in the presence of Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, with 330 pM GnRH for 3 h. Subsequently, total LH pool (released and remaining hormone content in lysed cells) in cultures was measured. Intracellular inositol trisphosphate of alphaT3-1 cells, a gonadotrope cell line, treated with estradiol and IGF-I as described before and stimulated with 100 nM GnRH for 15 min was analyzed by ion exchange chromatography. To determine the interaction of IGF-II and estradiol on GnRH-stimulated LH secretion, cells were treated with increasing concentrations of IGF-II (0.05 pM-10 nM) and 100 pM estradiol. IGF-I significantly increased the accumulation of inositol trisphosphate in basal and GnRH-stimulated cells. IGF-I, estradiol, or their combinations did not change total LH pool, although they enhanced LH secretion. Wortmannin abolished the positive effects of IGF-I and estradiol on LH secretion. IGF-II alone increased basal, but not GnRH-induced LH secretion at low concentrations (0.05 pM). Addition
J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 19;23(33):10487-94.
Estradiol differentially regulates c-Fos after focal cerebral ischemia.
Rau SW, Dubal DB, Bottner M, Wise PM.
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA.
Estrogen replacement therapy enhances mood, delays cognitive decline, and reduces the risk of neurodegeneration. Our laboratory has shown previously that pretreatment with low physiological levels of estradiol protects against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury during late phases of neuronal cell death. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are induced by various forms of brain injury, and their induction is known to be a critical step in programmed cell death. The current study tested the hypothesis that the ability of estradiol to reduce MCAO-induced cell death involves attenuation of expression of one or more IEGs. We examined the effects of MCAO on the temporospatial pattern of IEG expression and the modulation of this pattern by estradiol replacement. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with either vehicle or low physiological concentrations of estradiol. One week later, rats underwent MCAO and brains were collected 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hr later. We assessed IEG mRNAs in discrete regions of brain by RT-PCR at 24 hr. We examined expression of c-Fos mRNA and protein in greater detail using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to delineate the time course and specific regions of cortex in which estradiol influenced its expression. Our results reveal that c-fos, fosB, c-jun, and junB levels were upregulated at 24 hr. Furthermore, estradiol selectively affected the expression of c-Fos mRNA and protein by attenuating the injury-induced increase in a time- and region-specific manner. Our findings strongly suggest that the ability of estradiol to protect against MCAO-induced cell death involves attenuation of c-Fos induction.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Oct;87(1):65-73.
Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 by 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol.
Paquette B, Bisson M, Therriault H, Lemay R, Pare M, Banville P, Cantin AM.
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, 12th Avenue North 3001, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4. benoit.paquettsherbrooke.ca
Breast cancer patients frequently develop metastases. This process requires the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins which act as a barrier to tumour cell passage. These proteins can be degraded by proteases, mainly the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-2 and -9 which are frequently detected in breast cancer tissues. ProMMPs are released from cancer cells, and their activation is considered to be a crucial step in metastases development. In breast cancer, estrogen metabolism is altered favouring the accumulation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2- and 4-OHE(2)). These estradiol metabolites can generate free radicals. Since reactive species are known activators of proMMPs, this study was designed to determine if the free radicals generated by 2- and 4-OHE(2) can activate proMMP-2 and -9. Activation of MMPs by hydroxyestradiol was determined by monitoring the cleavage of a fluorogenic peptide and by zymography analysis. Both estradiol metabolites activated the MMP-2 and -9. 4-OHE(2) was a more potent activator than 2-OHE(2), which reflects its higher capacity to generate free radicals. ProMMPs activation was mainly mediated through O(2)*-, although the free radical HO* also activated the proMMPs but to a lesser extent. ProMMPs activation was not observed with estrogens that cannot generate free radicals, i.e. estradiol, estrone, 2- and 4-methoxyestradiol, and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone. These results demonstrate that 2- and 4-OHE(2) at a concentration as low as 10(-8)M can activate the proMMP-2 and -9 and might play an important role in the invasion of breast cancer cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14630092&dopt=Abstract estradiol [PubMed - indexed for
J Immunol. 2003 Dec 1;171(11):5820-7.
Estradiol treatment redirects the isotype of the autoantibody response and prevents the development of autoimmune arthritis.
Latham KA, Zamora A, Drought H, Subramanian S, Matejuk A, Offner H, Rosloniec EF.
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Memphis, TN 38104, USA.
A number of clinical and experimental observations have been made relating elevated estrogen levels with the amelioration of autoimmune diseases, yet questions remain about the levels required for efficacy as well as the mechanism of disease inhibition. Using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, we have studied the effects of physiological, sustained levels of 17beta-estradiol in preventing the development of autoimmune arthritis and analyzed the changes in the autoimmune response. Using time-release pellets of 17beta-estradiol, arthritis development was significantly inhibited in three different strains of CIA-susceptible mice compared with the effect of placebo treatment, and serum estradiol levels similar to those of mice in estrus were found to be equally effective as higher estradiol concentrations. Analysis of the autoimmune response in the estradiol-treated mice indicated that T cell production of IFN-gamma was markedly decreased, and significant decreases were also observed in levels of IL-10 and GM-CSF produced by lymph nodes cells from estradiol-treated mice. Although the total IgG anti-CII response was only minimally affected by estrogen treatment, a significant reduction in the levels of IgG2a anti-CII Abs and an increase in the levels of IgG1 anti-CII Abs were observed in estradiol-treated mice. These data indicate that estradiol treatment altered the Th profile of the autoimmune T cell response, which, in turn, altered the production of IgG Abs to an isotype that is poor at fixing complement, an important component in the immunopathogenesis of CIA.
J Neuroendocrinol. 2003 Dec;15(12):1164-70.
Oestrogen receptor-alpha and -beta immunoreactivity in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurones after ovariectomy and chronic exposure to oestradiol.
Legan SJ, Tsai HW.
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. sjlegaky.edu
Oestradiol exerts negative- and positive-feedback actions on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. Furthermore, a chronic increase in circulating oestradiol in either young ovariectomized (OVX) rats, or in middle-aged persistent oestrous (PE) rats, causes a gradual attenuation of LH surges until the positive-feedback action of oestradiol disappears. Based on these findings, and on the equivocal evidence regarding a direct action of oestradiol on GnRH neurones, we tested the hypothesis that chronic oestradiol abolishes LH surges by decreasing the proportion of GnRH neurones containing oestrogen receptor (ER)alpha or beta. Regularly cycling rats were ovariectomized, and half immediately received oestradiol. Three days, or 2 or 4 weeks later, rats were perfused at 18.00 h, and GnRH was colocalized with ERalpha or ERbeta by immunocytochemistry. ERbeta was expressed in 76% of GnRH neurones, whereas virtually no GnRH cells were immunopositive for ERalpha. The proportion of GnRH cells expressing ERalpha or beta in OVX rats was not altered by oestradiol or time after OVX, and this was the case regardless of their medial to lateral, or rostral to caudal location. The results indicate that the mechanisms for the positive-feedback action of oestradiol, and the loss of LH surges in OVX rats after chronic oestradiol, are not mediated by changes in the proportion of oestrogen-receptor containing GnRH neurones.
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003 Dec;81(6):617-24.
The influence of sex hormones on ocular blood flow in women.
Toker E, Yenice O, Akpinar I, Aribal E, Kazokoglu H.
Department of Ophthalmology, Marmara University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey. aetokeuperonline.com
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of sex hormones on ocular haemodynamics, blood flow velocities in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries and serum levels of sex hormones were measured in pre- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) was used to determine the flow velocities (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and end-diastolic velocity [EDV]) and the resistive index (RI) in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in 22 premenopausal and 32 postmenopausal women, who had never received hormone replacement therapy. Serum levels were measured for oestradiol, free testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The CDI parameters were compared between the two groups and the influence of serum levels of oestradiol and testosterone on blood flow velocities and the resistive indices were analysed. RESULTS: After correcting for age and mean arterial blood pressure, an analysis of covariance disclosed a significantly lower EDV (p=0.02) and a significantly higher RI (p=0.01) in the central retinal artery of postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age, revealed significant correlations between the CDI parameters and serum levels of oestradiol and testosterone. For premenopausal women, PSV (r=0.58, p=0.04) and EDV (r=0.73, p=0.006) in the ophthalmic artery correlated positively with serum oestradiol levels. The RI in the central retinal artery decreased with increasing oestradiol levels in both groups (premenopausal r= -0.40, p=0.04; postmenopausal r= -0.32, p=0.05). Peak systolic velocity in the central retinal artery correlated negatively (r= -0.49, p=0.04), whereas the RI correlated positively (r=0.53, p=0.02) with testosterone levels in the premenopausa
Steroids. 2003 Dec;68(14):1189-200.
Synthesis and biological properties of 7alpha-cyano derivatives of the (17alpha,20E/Z)-[125I]iodovinyl- and 16alpha-[125I]iodo-estradiols.
Ali H, Rousseau J, Paquette B, Dube C, Marko B, van Lier JE.
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4.
The synthesis, receptor binding affinity, estrogenic potency and tissue distribution of the 7alpha-cyano derivatives of the (17alpha,20E/Z)-[125I]iodovinyl-(CIVE) and 16alpha-[125I]iodo-estradiols (CIE) are reported. The iodovinyl derivatives were prepared via the (17alpha,20E/Z)-tri-n-butylstannyl intermediates, derived from the addition of tri-n-butyl tin hydride to the 17alpha-ethynyl group of the 7alpha-cyano-17alpha-ethynylestradiol, using triethylborane as a catalyst. The no-carrier-added [125I]-CIVE isomers were prepared via the same stereospecific reaction. [125I]-CIE was prepared from 7alpha-cyano-16beta-bromoestradiol via halogen exchange with Na125I. Addition of the 7alpha-cyano group to 16alpha-iodoestradiol did not affect estrogen receptor binding affinity (RBA of CIE is 115). However the estrogenic potential of CIE, as measured by the capacity to stimulate the expression of the pS2 gene, was reduced to 1% as compared to that of estradiol. Addition of a 7alpha-cyano group to the (17alpha,20E/Z)-IVE isomers reduced the RBA to 21 and 36, respectively, while the estrogenic potential was reduced to 2-3% of that of estradiol. Uterus uptake in immature rats of the 125I-labeled CIVE 20E-isomer and the 16alpha-iodo CIE peaked at 0.5h post injection while the (17alpha,20Z)-CIVE isomer showed a maximum only past 5h post injection. Uptake of all three 125I-labeled 7alpha-cyanoestrogens was suppressed by the co-injection of non-radioactive estradiol confirming the role of estrogen receptors in the localization process. Uterus retention pattern differ substantially from those of the analogues 7alpha-methylestrogens, which were
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